What Is Living Donor Liver Transplantation?
A living donor liver transplant is when a healthy person donates a portion of their liver to another person. The liver has the ability to regenerate itself in both the donor and recipient. This procedure can dramatically cut the risk of death and complications in the recipient and improvements in surgical techniques have helped to reduce the health risks for the donor.
In January 2006, Northwestern Memorial Hospital performed the world’s first laparoscopic (minimally invasive) live donor liver hepatectomy (the surgical removal of all or part of the liver). This technique, pioneered by Northwestern Medicine, is now being adopted by a select number of programs in the United States.
Since then, Northwestern Memorial Hospital has performed more than 190 living donor liver transplants, of which more than 100 have been performed laparoscopically, making us the largest living donor program in Illinois. Our Liver Transplant Program is one of the leaders in the country in offering adult-to-adult and adult-to-pediatric living donor liver transplantation,
Due to the success of liver transplantation, the number of patients waiting for a liver has increased dramatically during the past 10 years. Unfortunately, the number of donors has not kept pace. Currently, there are 15,765 people waiting for liver transplants in the United States, but only enough livers to perform about 6,500 transplants each year. Because of this organ shortage, almost 1,500 people die each year while waiting for a liver transplant.
The one-year survival rate for recipients of living donor liver transplants is about 90 percent, which compares favorably to recipients of cadaver liver donations, which is about 86 percent.
Who is a living donor candidate?
To be considered for a living liver donation, you must:
- Have a compatible blood type to the recipient
- Be 18 to 55 years old
- have had no major abdominal surgery
- Be in good health with no major medical or psychiatric illnesses
- Be at a good weight
- Be able to understand and comply with the instructions for surgery and recovery
- Understand that the outcome of the transplant may not be as expected
- Find great reward in saving a life
The tests you will undergo in preparation for the transplant include:
- Medical history
- Psychosocial history
- Diagnostic tests, including EKG and chest X-ray
- Evaluation of the liver's size
- Evaluation of the liver's blood supply and bile ducts
Your independent donor advocate
It is important to know that it is your choice to donate. You must not feel pressured or that donating is something you “have to do.” This is a decision you need to make for yourself. You have the right to change your mind at any time. Your reasons for doing so will remain confidential. We will support you no matter what you decide.
Every donor is assigned an independent donor advocate. The independent donor advocate is involved only with your wellbeing and is not involved with the recipient. The advocate and transplant nurse coordinator gives you information about the donation surgery as well as about possible risks to both you and the recipient.