Causes and Diagnoses

Causes and Diagnoses of Bladder Cancer

While the exact causes of bladder cancer are not known, there are well-established risk factors for developing the disease. Risk factors for bladder cancer include:

  • Smoking
  • Men and women over the age of 73
  • Gender (bladder cancer occurs about three times more often in men than in women)
  • Occupational exposure to substances such as aniline dye and aromatic amines
  • Chronic bladder irritation
  • Race (Caucasians are twice as likely to develop bladder cancer as African-Americans and Hispanics)
  • Personal history of bladder cancer
  • Family history
  • Parasite infections


In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, your physician may order some of the following procedures for bladder cancer diagnosis or staging: